Wednesday, April 28, 2010

Kings of England and Crusade Notes:

  • 1066-1087 william the conqueror
  • 1087-1110: King Rufus. He invades Wales and builds castles along the coast
  • 1100-1135: King Henry I - brother of Rufus
  • Pope Urban II is urging Europeans to fight the Muslims
  • The knights of Templar founded to protect Jerusalem (warrior monks)
  • 1154-1189: King Henry II 1184: Inquisitions - convert Jews and find Heretics. Heretics were tortured
  • 1190: King Richard. Third Crusade - Saladin unites the Muslim world to fight against the European world
  • 1200: King John. Fourth Crusade embarks and eventually sacks Constantinople
  • 1212: Children's Crusade
  • 1214-1215: Barons revolt! England blames the King.
  • 1215 (important date)- SIGNING OF THE MAGNA CARTA "The Great Charter" - forced King John to accept that the monarchy had to follow the law
  • Foundation of a constitution of a democracy
  • 1216-1272: King Henry III
  • 1272-1307: King Edward. 1274:Thomas Aquinas publishes Summa Theologiae. 1295:Marco Polo publishes his tales of China.
  • 1307-1327: King Edward II. Knights of Templar are rounded up and murdered by Philip the Fair of France with the backing of the Pope. 1311-1315 The Great Famine
  • 1327-1377: King Edward III. Hundred Years War starts between England and France, the year literally lasts 116 years. Italy remains city states
  • Three parts of the war: 1. Edwardian War (1337-1360) 2. Caroline War (1369-1389) 3. Lancastrian War (1415-1429)
  • 1377-1399: Richard II. 1381 Peasants Revolt in England, peasants are doomed. 1382 the Bible is translated into English by John Wycliffe. Old French and Latin created Old English
  • 1399-1413: King Henry V greatest king in england. Defeats the French at the Battle of Agincourt. He is hailed as a great leader.
  • 1422-1461: Henry VI. Joan of Arc lifts the siege of Orleans but is burned at the steak. 1434-Medici family rises to prominence in Florence. 1452-Leonardo da Vinci is born. 1453-the hundred years war ends. 1455-Johann Gutenberg invents the printing press and prints the bible.

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